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Certificate for violin bows: What does "School of XXX" mean?


Rumolt2
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In certificates for violin bows I often read that a bow is not assigned to a specific bow maker directly, but to his "school" ("School of Paejot" or similar). What does "school" mean? Was the bow made in the workshop of the named bow maker? Or from one of his pupils? Or by anyone else who only worked in the style of the named bow maker? I would be grateful for an answer from the experts.

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From the "Glossary of terms" in a Skinner musical instrument auction catalog:  "School of XXX:  In our judgment [this is] the work of a follower executed in the style of the named maker or area stated."

Other people may use the term “school” differently.

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Yes, I think this term can be used very differently. In some case anyone, anywhere, any time, who is following a particular maker's style. Or in some cases, made by somebody from around the same time and place, and associated with the maker in some way.

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To me it's a pretty redundant term on a certificate though i can see its application in an auction.

As Deans says, it means something which is made in the style of, and around the same time period as .....

So "School of Pajeot" means it looks like a Pajeot, it's about as old as a Pajeot, but it ain't a Pajeot.

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Following is from Tarisio Auctions:

Attributions and Authorship

Authorship is described in the following ways:

  • By Antonio Stradivari: The authors of this catalog believe in their best judgment that this work was made by this maker and guarantee it to be so. For further information on this guarantee, please see our Terms of Use.
  • Attributed to Antonio Stradivari: A work believed to be by this maker by popular consensus or past opinion, but not by the authors of this catalog.
  • Ascribed to Antonio Stradivari: A work believed to be by this maker in the opinion of the authors of the accompanying certificates or letters, but not by the authors of this catalog.
  • Composite: An instrument where the front and back are not made by the same maker. In this case our attribution is to the more important, and in most cases the earlier, component.
  • Probably (or possibly) by Antonio Stradivari: A work about which there is divided opinion.
  • Under the direction of Antonio Stradivari: A work executed under the guidance of and with the direct involvement of this maker.
  • Workshop of Antonio Stradivari: A work executed in the style of this maker, most probably under his supervision and with his involvement.
  • Circle of: A work believed to be by someone associated with the maker, working under his direct or indirect influence.
  • School of Antonio Stradivari: The work of a follower of the maker or region stated.
  • Labeled (or stamped, branded) Antonio Stradivari: An instrument not necessarily the work of the maker stated but labeled or branded as such.

 

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The glossary I use for my appraisals does not contain "Circle of", nor "School of", though I understand the draw of those terms for an auction house.

My glossary does contain "In the style of", and should I choose to refer to an instrument as "School of", I'd add a very clear definition of the meaning I am referring to for that term.

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I can't wait until there starts to be colonies on other worlds. Then we can use terms such as From Earth and From The Mars Colonies etc.....

Violin by Technician 8475637 [Civilian Designation: Luciano Zoran] Orbital station H94567 (Saturn Rings) - In The 18th Century Milanese Style of Earth - c.2300

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Bonus material – your cut-out-and-keep guide to violin auction terminology:

1. By Leandro Bisiach
Well none of us were there at the time but there’s broad agreement that this was made by Bisiach or by someone in his workshop, or was ordered by Bisiach from Nonno down the road … or maybe Nonno’s brother. But Bisiach definitely made it or had it made and the label is legit.
2. ASCRIBED TO Leandro Bisiach
Not by Bisiach, but it has a certificate from Jacques Francais from 1995 so if you’re unscrupulous you should be able to sell it as a Bisiach.
3. ATTRIBUTED TO Leandro Bisiach
The owner refuses to believe this isn’t a Bisiach because they paid a lot of money for it in the 1930s. They would only consign it if we also agreed that it might be a Bisiach and was worth more than it really is, so we’ve put a punchy estimate on it … but it ain’t a Bisiach
4. WORKSHOP OF Leandro Bisiach
Sort of like number 1 but we’re not 100% sure. Might have been made by Nonno’s brother – definitely that sort of thing.
5. CIRCLE OF Leandro Bisiach
This is probably a Linguine. You know, Linguine was always jealous of Bisiach. I reckon he half-inched some of that nice quilted maple and a label or two and knocked this one up out of sheer spite. It does look incredibly like a Bisiach except it doesn’t have any f-holes.
6. FOLLOWER OF Leandro Bisiach; AND SCHOOL OF Leandro Bisiach
It’s a fake. You can kid yourself that it’s a Sgarabotto but we did a dendro and it can’t be.
7. LABELLED OR STAMPED OR INSCRIBED Leandro Bisiach
Get real, this is the violin trade ….

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