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After a bunch of contradictory opinions about different kinds of marks and stains in maple which took over a recent thread about the causes of marks and discoloration on some one's violin I have done some research and basically find that everyone who commented was correct. Ultimately in maple, especially Acer Rubrum, the cells involved in healing wounds are generally darker in color than the normal wood fiber. The causes of wounds minor enough to heal without significant structural defect include beetles which lay eggs on or under the bark, their larvae, bird peck, rodent bite( to lick the sap) and a myriad of other things which penetrate the phloem layer of the tree. On the smallest scale schizogenous and lysigenous cell separation in the cambium cause channels and pockets which transport fluids and gases to cells but later fill with thin walled but tightly spaced paranchyma cells. Furthermore with any break in the layer of phloem cells there is the possibility of a secondary fungal infection which will spread from the original site and usually results in green or blue colored stains depending on acid and or sugar content of the adjacent cells.. Lastly there is indeed a phenomenon where actual minerals are deposited in schizogenous defects for reasons that I can't find much about resulting in genuine mineral streaks which are not only strongly colored but also have a noticeably different feel under the tools including actually dulling or even nicking blades. As usual the nonscientific regional terminology for these various defects differ as does the prevalence of different causes making the discussion difficult. The fact that even highly skilled experts require a microscope to tell what kind of defect they are looking at makes discussion of macro photos on a computer screen pretty futile.