Someone a little more versed may correct me.
Pernambuco used for Professional bow is made almost exclusively from Caesalpinia Echinata. C. echinata is the protected species you're referencing. My understanding is that High-End/Professional bows made today are made primarily from stock that was cut years ago and comes from either other bow-makers' collections or reclaimed sources in Brazil. The former is highly sought after.
Lower tier bows typically say they are made from "Brazilwood". Brazilwood, and Pernambuco for that matter, are common names for a variety of different trees, and to further the confusion are often used interchangeably. Many of which are actually different species of the same Genus (Caesalpinia), which includes C. Sappan (Sappan, an Asian species of the tree), C. Spinosa, C. Ferrea (Ironwood, sometimes seen in baroque bows, or as an experimental wood), C. Pluviosa ("False Brazilwood").
Ipe is somewhat common alternative wood from what I've seen. Especially for "Disposable bows" as Mike described.
It seems like overall there is somewhat of a divide where on one side lower quality/high production bows are less restrained by materials and therefore operate under a price-centric model. The other side with the higher quality bows made by specialist being more generally limited by the supply of materials. Both of which I can't imagine crossing over into the other successfully.