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Hempel

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  1. Portable musical instruments are one of the least customs-restricted items while you are traveling. Martin goes out of his way to blow customs rules out of proportion. If you physically accompany an instrument (for non-commercial use) while traveling between UK and EU, even a search is of no consequence, because such instruments won't be considered contraband. You can make an oral declaration or declaration by conduct, which simply means you travel unimpeded through a customs checkpoint/border without having to declare your instruments at all. Everyone will be well served by reading the following checklist: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/working-performing-and-touring-in-europe-guidance-for-musicians-and-accompanying-staff#transporting-musical-instruments-or-equipment Because Martin is a "trader" most instruments he carries won't be for non-commercial use, so these instruments don't qualify for such exemptions. He conflates his own trading issues with those of the traveling musician. As far as I know if a musician with express intention gets an instrument appraisal or repaired while traveling that's not considered commercial use (carnet will not be necessary for such circumstances). This of course assumes that the instrument returns to the home country with the traveling musician and is not left at intermediate destination for sale, consignment, etc.
  2. UK isn't the only country in the world that's outside the EU. I'm sorry if you have the impression customs agents everywhere go out of their way to mess with business operations. It's usually the other way around, (casual) people don't bother to learn cross border rules and exceptions before engaging in transactions and get into inextricable difficulties. Customs agents are generally very insistent on the rules. If they step outside their bounds business can challenge them using those very same rules. The sword cuts both ways. Raffin et al. make annual tours to North America as well. They very well know it will be too much to expect musicians to become versed in the intricacies of Temporary Admission (duties) and CITES (trade in endangered species products). What's that old saying? When the mountain won't come to Mohammed, Mohammed must go to the mountain. Despite so many countries (including UK) outside EU, trade between these countries and EU hasn't stopped. Yes, these rules favor large organizations (vs. sole proprietors) so the Conservative Party in UK really sold their populace with false bill of goods. Nothing new under the sun there.
  3. The will be no "luck" whatsoever involved for our Polish OP. He merely has to fill out a one page form in addition to a customs declaration. The rest (on the Polish/EU side) is purely administrative process. Follow directions properly and there will be no complications or surprises. The UK side is more of a PITA, but most of requirements (other than import/export) would have to be carried out by legit businesses anyways. When I read a response from a repair person like "in an instance I (or the customer) had to pay a 20% import duty on replacement/declared value of an item for repair and procedure too complicated" it's obvious that repair person didn't reveal the full story, namely, he effed up.
  4. There is no confusion on my part. The UK repairer, should he elect to do the job, will have to apply for inward processing relief (IPR): https://www.gov.uk/guidance/apply-to-delay-or-pay-less-duty-on-goods-you-import-to-process-or-repair UK import duties, if any, at most, be a percentage of the repair (value of the repair work itself), and not on the (e.g. replacement) value of the bow. I acknowledge the bureaucracy is PITA, but it's nowhere close as onerous as some make it out to be. The Brits only have themselves to blame since they voted for Brexit. The Polish OP will have to document that he owns the bow and furnish said documentation (including pre-stating export and re-import for repair purposes) to EU Customs before shipping the item out.
  5. This is merely the reply of a repair person who has opted out of navigating the bureaucracy (and the risks associated with that). It does not necessarily represent practices of more informed (or resourced) repair persons. As a non-EU resident myself, if for example I purchase something from EU (either visiting or through a web site), I may have to pay (EU) VAT. But I can get most of the VAT refunded if I follow certain procedures. https://taxation-customs.ec.europa.eu/guide-vat-refund-visitors-eu_en I bring up this example to illustrate that the burden of minimizing customs impact falls on you (the consumer of a service, in your case). It just means you must know the proper customs procedures and exemptions (of both sides) before commencing any cross border transaction. These administrative procedures are certainly inconvenient, but they are certainly not impossible or cost prohibitive to navigate. To be more specific, the UK repair person should not charge (UK) VAT since the service is performed on a bow shipped from Poland and presumably sipped back to Poland within a short amount of time. As long as both sides can show that the bow was shipped from Poland and returned there (proof of delivery), there should be no VAT implications on either side. That said, there is CITES, which is a separate matter from VAT.
  6. Exclusive German Instruction in Public Primary Schools: "Instruction in German was common during the nineteenth century, sometimes to the exclusion of English...Schools became the central institution for socializing immigrants into the “American” way of life, which included the English language. The Edwards Law of 1889 required that all parochial and public schools in Illinois teach in English. Germans were outraged. The law was repealed in 1893, but it allowed English-only instruction to gain momentum." http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/137.html "WU: The whole school day, lessons are taught in German. But this town isn't in Germany or Austria or even Belgium. This school lesson is taking place in the middle of Ohio, in a town heavily populated by German immigrants. CHARLES DORN: The language of instruction in that school would have been German. It wouldn't have been English because, of course, it wouldn't make any sense to teach kids in a language they don't know. WU: This is Charles Dorn. He is the Barry N. Wish professor of social studies at Bowdoin College. He's also the co-author of "Patriotic Education In A Global Age."" https://www.npr.org/transcripts/1198908644 Exclusive Target Group German Protestants: In my post I put "...targeted to German (Protestant) immigrants." I put "Protestant" within parenthesizes. I cite this as well-thought out and clever campaign of targeted marketing (even better than Google ads:)), not haphazard "throw everything and the kitchen sink" as you suggest. It's not meant to imply that all German immigrants to US were Protestant. Countless German language daily newspapers published in the US: "Their (German immigrants) numbers and dedication to maintaining their language and culture made Germans the most influential force in the American foreign-language press—in the 1880s, the 800 German-language newspapers accounted for about 4/5 of non-English publications, and by 1890, more than 1,000 German newspapers were being published in the United States." https://www.neh.gov/divisions/preservation/featured-project/chronicling-americas-historic-german-newspapers-and-the-grow (Granted not all these papers were necessarily dailies but the sheer number is massive) Regarding Zöbisch: It's evident from Zöbisch cited sources (at least on this particular entry) that he did not consult trademark registrations. In fact all the sources cited are secondary. I certainly don't recall any C. Bruno (or any other distributor) advertisement or catalog mentioning "Durer" (spelled thusly) Of course this doesn't rule out Bruno may have marketed "Durer" at some point, but even the "LK" signum associated with "Wilhelm Durer Alomnus/Stradivari fecit" raises additional questions. What does "LK" have anything to do with Bruno/Wilhelm Durer?" (This is speculation but it's likely "LK" on that label stood for Lederer & Kreinberg) I mentioned this before. Zöbisch is incomplete. Yet some of you treat it like it is incontrovertible, almost treating it like the bible. Zöbisch's glaring shortcoming is that he ignores primary sources. (I've also been told he doesn't speak or read English, although I have no idea how true that is.) I've demonstrated this shortcoming more than once on this forum (cf. Stratton, Herrmann and now H&S), and that should lead you at least question your own views regarding Zöbisch. Finally, there's nothing particularly confrontational about me informing both you and blankface that your Dürrschmidt-inspired theory holds no water. The earliest English language mention of (violin-related) Dürrschmidt was a 1903 trade article for Dürrschmidt strings. (August, Adolf and Paul of the Markneukirchen firm Bauer & Dürrschmidt). Now you didn't write the following words in your self-described "attempt of a whimsical, humorous, fictional, and associative scene," but your implication of "what would these clueless Yanks know of Eisleben and Dürer anyways?" came across loud and clear. Perhaps after reading this response it would occur to you that your attempt was more offensive than anything else given the waves of German immigration to the United States.
  7. You and @match can forget about any Dürrschmidt-inspired connection associated with H&S "Wilhelm Duerer" name. At the time H&S filed their trademark, "Dürrschmidt" was unknown in the US. Dürrschmidt (or any of their business associates) had spent no money on advertising in the US market. H&S wouldn't have been able to ride on any (existing) Dürrschmidt coattails because there were none at the time. Even in Germany in 1890, the only widely known Markneukirchener Dürrschmidts would have been August and Adolf, string manufacturers. August Wilhelm Dürrschmidt did not start business until 1887, and H&S was founded 3 years earlier. And to be clear when I say "Dürrschmidt" I mean any Markneukirchener with that surname.
  8. The above is a trademark filing by Hitzeroth & Schatz of Markneukirchen. (Source: Official gazette of the United States Patent Office v.68, no.6-13 1894) The above is from a trade directory from 1912. The foregoing "discussion" regarding German language use in the US prior to WWI is so historically misinformed. Prior to WWI many public primary schools provided instruction in all subjects _only_ in German (not to mention countless German language daily newspapers published in the US). These instruments were targeted to German (Protestant) immigrants. Just because the English alphabet doesn't have any letters with umlauts should not lead one to conclude that some clueless "American" (i.e. non-German language speaking "Anglos") importers or even Germans made up some random names. The made up name and town were mentioned to evoke specific affinities & emotions. Nürnburg where Albrecht Dürer lived was well known for providing persecuted Protestants refuge.
  9. One can only wonder how historians and archeologists did their work prior to the rise of large language models (or search engines). Having already given you the pointer regarding familysearch.org, I'd be much more impressed if you stated "after Hempel's response on this thread I consulted the census as a primary source and newspapers as secondary sources." LLM is not "AI" and even a broken clock is right twice per day. Search engines cite sources, LLM provides no citations whatsoever. How did AI figure out Droescher's middle name was Joseph or he had any involvement with "lutherie?" Your actions are the textbook example of "garbage in, garbage out."
  10. Suffice to say there exists detailed biographical information on John Joseph Droescher freely available on familysearch.org. Create a free account for yourself there and you should be able to come to your own conclusions on how John Droescher possibly made this fiddle. People would be much more inclined to help if you stated what sources (other than search engines) you've already consulted prior to posting your question here. That would at least demonstrate that you made a good faith effort to seek out the biographical information yourself.
  11. After a bit of reflection the label should read: "Vincenzo Trusicians/Anno 1750." (i.e. not "Trusiciaus") "Trusicians" was probably someone's notion of Latinized form of "Trusiano." On these trade instruments there's no point getting too wrapped around the axle regarding names. That script was certainly not written by a proper German resident but the employee of an American importer:
  12. Label reads: Vincenzo Trusiciaus (can't make out third word). It's apparently an homage to Panormo.
  13. "RGS" monogram with tuning fork through it was the (Bohemian) registered trademark of Reinhold Geipel Söhne. A specimen of their label with their trademark can be seen here: https://www.ebay.com/itm/325194623195
  14. Having looked up the Pilsen archives (where Neumarkt[Úterý] is located), there is no record of Joseph Böhman born there in 1848 (as Lütgendorff asserted). Usually you'd at least find the surname of the clan, but no such surname existed there around that time. In the 1880 US census Böhmann family asserted they were from "Prusia." When they emigrated to US in 1867, the kingdom of Saxony (where Markneukirchen is located) was not part of Prussia Germany. Although I suppose by 1871 Saxony became part of the German Empire, but "Prussia" would be a rather curious way for Saxons to refer to themselves even in 1880. In later US censuses the Böhmanns stated they were from Austria. If they were Saxons this indicates to me they came from the side that became part of Austria (namely Bohemia). I would question your source stating Joseph Böhmann was born in Markneukirchen (exact date not specified). At least Lütgendorff provided a specific date and place. Brasshistory.net usually has reliable information but I'd be careful even here: https://www.brasshistory.net/Bohmann History.pdf "William" Böhmann (the father of Joseph), apparently his given name was Wenzel. Wenzel's son (also named Wenzel), was born in Neumark, (no 't' at the end like Lütgendorff stated). That's a few miles SW of Zwickau.
  15. Hempel

    Violin id

    From "Internationale Ausstellung für Musik und Theaterwesen Wien 1892 / Führer durch die Ausstellung und Katalog der gewerblichen Special-Ausstellung / Herausgegeben von der Ausstellungs-Commission (1892, p. 167, entry 508.2):" Contemporaneous exhibit catalog that proves "E.R. Schmidt & Co. (emphasis mine)" definitely existed just before the turn of the century. "Leipziger Tageblatt und Anzeiger : 17.01.1892," p. 376, column 1, about 60% down the page (full page too big to upload to MN):
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